The scenario of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy that is not confirmed on ultrasound, is referred to as a pregnancy of unknown location, with the alternative possibilities being of very early pregnancy or a completed miscarriage .9 cm unruptured fallopian tube ectopic pregnancy. She underwent emergent salpingectomy without complications, confirming a 10 week, 6 days gestational age pregnancy The transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVUS) demonstrated an ectopic pregnancy mass measuring 7.3 × 4.0 cm in the left adnexa. An embryo with CRL of 2.02 cm corresponding to 8 weeks, 4 days was noted in the ectopic pregnancy mass. Upon entering the pelvic cavity, a dark reddish-colored unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy mass was noted
The conservative surgical management of unruptured ectopic pregnancy. DeCherney A, Kase N. With the earlier and more accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy based on rapid beta-subunit pregnancy tests and the use of ultrasound and laparoscopy, the percentage of diagnosed unruptured ectopic pregnancies is rapidly increasing Ectopic gestational sac, most commonly seen in unruptured ectopic rather than ruptured ectopic pregancies Bagel sign hypoechoic centre (+/- yolk sac) surrounded by thick echogenic rim The echogenic rim is due to concentric trophoblastic tissue surrounding the chorionic sac of the ectopic pregnancy Clinical Treatment of Unruptured Ectopic Pregnancy 181 after expectant management, when the adnexal mass usually disappears on ultrasound examination Clinical Treatment of Unruptured Ectopic Pregnancy. 179. surgery. Late diagnosis is characterized by a longer time since the last menstrual period, beta-hCG levels decreasing over 24 and 48-hour.
An ectopic pregnancy can be suspected if the transvaginal ultrasound examination does not detect an intrauterine gestational sac when the β-hCG level is higher than 1,500 mIU per mL. The literature.. One hundred ninety-five cases of ectopic pregnancy have been retrospectively reviewed to determine how laparoscopy, ultrasound and beta pregnancy testing have affected this change. Over the reviewed period of time, the rate of diagnosed and treated unruptured ectopic pregnancies increased from 8% to 35%
Intramyometrial pregnancy is the rarest of the ectopic pregnancies and less than 50 cases have been reported in literature. 2 It is estimated to occur in less than 1% of all ectopic pregnancies. 3 Intramyometrial pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy located within the uterine wall, completely surrounded by myometrium, and separated from the. Using Philips HDI 3000 and 5000 ultrasound machines (Philips, Bothell, WA, USA), transvaginal ultrasound was used to diagnose live, unruptured ectopic pregnancies in women with positive serum β-hCG titers A diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy was made when a mass with ultrasound appearances of an ectopic pregnancy was seen in either adnexa, separate from the ovary and corpus luteum
Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: importance of transabdominal imaging. J Ultrasound Med 1997;16:603-607. Medline, Google Scholar; 4 Berry SM, Coulam CB, Hill LM, Breckle R. Evidence of contralateral ovulation in ectopic pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 1985;4:293-295. Medline, Google Scholar; 5 National Center for Health. Intramural pregnancy, defined as gestation completely surrounded by the myometrium located within the uterine wall with separation from the uterine cavity, fallopian tube, or round ligament, is an extremely rare form of pregnancy and less than 50 cases have been reported in literature (less than 1% of all ectopic pregnancy) .In most cases, fetal wastage occurs at 11-22 weeks' gestation. Subsequent development and implantation of embryo outside the uterine lining are defined as an ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancies have a wide range of presentations, for example, acute hemoperitoneum to chronic ectopic pregnancy. The case presented is an unusual case of ectopic pregnancy with large hematosalpinx with classic symptoms. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this case. The diagnosis of an ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography was based on one of the following grey-scale appearances: (i) an inhomogeneous mass or blob sign adjacent to the ovary and moving separately to this; or (ii) a mass with a hyper-echoic ring around the gestational sac or bagel sign; or (iii) a gestational sac with a fetal pole with cardiac. Ectopic pregnancy means the pregnancy is not growing in it's normal location inside the uterus. Instead, it is growing elsewhere. 97% of the time, the ectopic pregnancy is located in the fallopian tube (tubal ectopic pregnancy) and the rest are found in the ovary, abdomen, cervix or other nearby structure. Show More about Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 1.9 percent of reported pregnancies. The condition is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. If a woman of. The gestational age of women with an unruptured tube was 6.9 1.9 weeks, and of those with a ruptured tube, the gestational age was 7.2 2.2 weeks. Tubal rupture was encountered more often in women with at least one child than in childless women. History of ectopic pregnancy was found in 35% of women with an unruptured tubal pregnancy and in 26%.
Ectopic pregnancy management was compared in patients who underwent transabdominal ultrasound scans and in those who did not. The proportion of unruptured ectopic pregnancy was higher (8.5% versus 0.3%) and the frequency of misdiagnosis lower in women who underwent scans than in women who did not . From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, St Louis, MO 63110. Address correspondence to R.A.P. (e-mail: email@example.com )
The most reliable sign of ectopic pregnancy is the visualisation of an extra-uterine gestation, but this is not seen in 15-35% of ectopic pregnancies 3. Ultrasound The ultrasound exam should be performed both transabdominal and transvaginally the ultrasound scan and a high index of suspicion of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. She consented to diagnostic laparoscopy which con-firmed a large highly vascular unruptured right interstitial ec-topic pregnancy measuring 4.5 x 4cm with impending rupture as the gestation was only covered at the top by a very thin sero-sal layer Ectopic pregnancy is a common gynecological emergency of the abdomen, and is the most common in tubal pregnancy, with a rate of 95% to 98%. To date, there is no gold standard non-invasive technique for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy. 1 If an ectopic pregnancy cannot be detected early and accurately, timely diagnosis and treatment are not provided. This can lead to rupture hemorrhage, shock, and. Ectopic pregnancy must always be considered in patients of child-bearing age. Ultrasound examination is highly reliable for diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at any gestational age. Second trimester unruptured tubal pregnancy is a rare ectopic pregnancy but it should always be considered as a possibility in pregnant women with second trimester.
tured ectopic pregnancy; (2) many ectopic pregnancies resolve spontaneously; and (3) ectopic pregnancies that form fetal elements, as evidenced on ultrasound, should not be managed medically. Fertil Steril 48:752, 1987 The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the United States continues to increase annually, with 69,60 Unruptured left ectopic 7 weeks. A 7 week pregnant lady presents to the Emergency department with spotting. A scan through the pelvis demonstrates an empty uterus and what looks like a CL cyst or an ectopic tubal pregnancy in the left adnexa. Colour Doppler demonstrates a ring of fire of fire appearance. This can be present around a CL. There is a left adnexal, unruptured, live, ectopic pregnancy with the sonographic age not corresponding to the period of amenorrhea. 1 article features images from this case Ectopic pregnancy There is an increasing frequency of early diagnosis of unruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. This is due primarily to better diagnostic testing, such as the use of ultrasound and radioimmunoassay for the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin
In fact, patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancies may present identically as a healthy pregnancy. Emergency and Diagnostic Tests and Interpretations Pertinent lab values: urine dip pregnancy testing is positive, quantitative serum B-hCG is 2000 mIU/mL, hemoglobin 13 gr/dL, hematocrit 40% Ectopic pregnancy constitutes up to 1.4% of all reported pregnancies , and ruptured ectopic pregnancies remain a leading cause of maternal death in the first trimester, accounting for 15% of all mortalities . While a fertilized egg can attach to numerous sites outside the uterus, 95% occur within the fallopian tubes  2. Ackerman R, Deutsch S, Krumholz B. Levels of human chorionic gonadotropin in unruptured and ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1982;60:13-14. 3. Atri M, deStempel J, Bret P. Accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography for the detection of hematosalpinx in ectopic pregnancy. J Clin Ultrasound 1992;20:255-61. 4. Bourne TH
10 cases, 12 cases, 40 cases and 24 cases of ectopic pregnancy, corpus luteum rupture (with ultrasound image shown in fig. 3), ovarian tumor torsion, acute uterine perforation, acute pelvic inflammatory disease (with ultrasound image shown in fig. 4), placenta previa and miscarriage, respectively. 176 cases were detected by ultrasonography The minimum diagnostic evaluation of a suspected ectopic pregnancy is a transvaginal ultrasound evaluation and confirmation of pregnancy. Serial evaluation with transvaginal ultrasonography, or serum hCG level measurement, or both, often is required to confirm the diagnosis of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy was false in about 20% of women, while the diagnosis of an unruptured ectopic pregnancy was virtually impossible (3). Laparoscopy The use of a laparoscope in the diagno-sis of ectopic pregnancy was suggested in 1937 by Hope in the United States (4). The ﬁrst use of this device was de-scribed in 1910 in patients.
Medical treatment with methotrexate is now successfully replacing conservative surgical treatment in selected patients. We reviewed patients treated with methotrexate, compared to salpingectomy and salpingostomy between 1990 to 1995 and 2000 to 2003. For 1990-1995 there were 21 conservative surgical treatments (5.3% ectopic pregnancies). The ratio of ectopic to normal deliveries was 1:24 Ultrasound findings consistent with an ectopic pregnancy. Willingness of the patient to adhere to close follow-up. No existing organ dysfunction: hepatic, renal, pulmonary, hematologic, immune. Relative. Unruptured ectopic mass <3.5cm. No fetal cardiac activity detected. hCG <5000 mIU/L. If an intrauterine pregnancy is identified such as a live. .70 Intramuscular methotrexate is the most widely used and successful medical therapy for ectopic pregnancy and is generally administered. The use of transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989 ; 161 :157-61. Goldstein , SR , Snyder , JR , Welson , C , Danon , M. Very early pregnancy detection with endovaginal ultrasound The diagnosis of the ectopic pregnancy was made at surgery and then confirmed on histological examination following salpingectomy. At laparoscopy, an unruptured ectopic pregnancy typically presents as a well-defined swelling in the fallopian tube. The diagnosis of intrauterine pregnancy becomes more difficult if the uterus is enlarged by fibroids
An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilizied oocyte implants outside the endometrial cavity. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has increased in recent years, reaching 1-2% of all prenancies . Along with the improvement of ultrasound equipment as well as the quantitative study of the B-HCG, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy can b Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which implants outside the endometrial cavity. These pregnancies will ultimately result in the death of the fetus. An ectopic pregnancy is an abnormal pregnancy which, without timely diagnosis and treatment, can become a life-threatening situation. 2% of all US pregnancies are ectopic and 98% of ectopics are tubal in location. Despite improved Ectopic pregnancy complicates 0.25%-2% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of first-trimester maternal mortality in developing countries due to late diagnosis. Spontaneous ruptured bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are extremel
Read P12.02: Management of ectopic pregnancy: comparison of pelvic ultrasound findings and βHCG trends in unruptured and ruptured cases, Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips Ectopic pregnancy is the result of a flaw in human reproductive physiology that allows the conceptus to implant and mature outside the endometrial cavity (see the image below), which ultimately ends in the death of the fetus. Without timely diagnosis and treatment, ectopic pregnancy can become a life-threatening situation Case studies in ectopic pregnancy: Avoid guesswork, and don't presume. Although a patient's ß-hCG levels, symptoms, or imaging may suggest ectopic pregnancy, missed diagnoses abound, especially when the physician omits 1 element of the triad: ß-hCG levels, ultrasound imaging, and curettage. CASE 1: Pain and bleeding, with a high hC Recent SART data from 2001 show that ectopic pregnancy occurs in 1.8% of recipients of embryo transfer during in vitro fertilization and up to 4.3% in patients undergoing zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). 33 Indeed, the first pregnancy reported in humans with this technique was an ectopic pregnancy. 34 Postulated mechanisms include the.
the management of unruptured ectopic pregnancy. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, 2013; 69: 130-131. 2. Cunningham FG et al. Ectopic pregnancy In Williams obstetrics, 21st ed. New York. MCGraw Hill, 2001; 883-910. 3. Dhar H, Hamdi I, Rathi B. Methotrezate Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy: Experience at Nizwa Hospital with Literature Review If the blood subsequently clots, it may have been obtained from an adjacent blood vessel rather than from a bleeding ectopic pregnancy. 14. Ultrasound With the advent of diagnostic ultrasound and the increasing use of conservative treatment, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is increasingly made without the help of surgery Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. While surgical approaches are the mainstay of treatment, many patients are candidates for medical therapy with methotrexate (MTX) because of advances in early diagnosis [ 2 ]. The overall success rate of medical treatment in properly selected patients is nearly 90 percent [ 3,4 ]
transvaginal ultrasound and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) determination has increased the likelihood of an early detection and intervention prior to tubal disturbance. Outpatient management of unruptured ectopic pregnancy and single dose methotrexate (MTX) treatment were first described by Stovall et al. (1) and have now become a majo Ruptured ectopic pregnancy, especially in a hemodynamically unstable woman. Inability or unwillingness to comply with post-treatment monitoring after medical therapy. Lack of timely access to a medical institution for management of tubal rupture, which can occur during conservative therap
Benifla, JL, H Fernandez, E Sebban, E Darai, R Frydman, and P Madelenat: Alternative to surgery of treatment of unruptured interstitial pregnancy: 15 cases of medical treatment. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 1996. 70(2): p. 151-6 But this is an option only for clinically stable women with an ultrasound diagnosis of unruptured ectopic pregnancy and when ß-hCG level is initially less than 1500 IU/ L and decreasing. Medical treatment involves giving the methotrexate injection when a clear diagnosis of unruptured ectopic pregnancy is made and viable intrauterine pregnancy. pregnancy test was positive 2 days ago. A transvaginal scan shows an empty uterus. Her condition is stable. Explain the significance of the first-line investigations. Justify your further investigations if the ultrasound and clinical findings are inconclusive. Outline your management ring of chorionic villi, a yolk sac or fetal pole. An unruptured corpus luteum cyst or may be mistaken for an ectopic gestational sac, and a ruptured corpus luteum cyst may produce free pelvic fluid suggesting ruptured ectopic pregnancy. The presence of ANY cul-de-sac fluid indicates ectopic pregnancy until proven otherwise *Ultrasound consistent unruptured ectopic No symptoms/signs patient has an unruptured ectopic pregnancy, wishes to retain her potential for future fertility, and the affected fallopian tube appears other wise normal. If the contralateral tube appears damaged, a salpingostomy should be considered..
performed to assess the safety management of unruptured ectopic in patient treated by using medical versus surgical method. Methodology: It is a prospective study conducted at Basra maternity hospital from the 1st of January 2015 till 1st of January 2019. 340 patients were diagnosed as unruptured ectopic pregnancy divided int Unruptured ectopic pregnancy rate (%) 3.87 6.20 4.97 6.63 5.43 The duration of amenorrhoea of the women who had ectopic pregnancy ranged from 6 to 17 weeks. Out of the 1492 cases 107 [7.17%] were repeat ectopic pregnancies. The mean age of the women who had ectopic pregnancy was 21.1±1.3 years and the mean parity was 0.9±0.6. As many a Because visualizing an unruptured ectopic gestation is difficult, ultrasound is used to look for an intrauterine pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, the gestational sac generally is visible on ultrasound five to six weeks after the last menstrual period unruptured ectopic pregnancies. Suggestive findings include: - Normal or slightly enlarged uterus - Pelvic pain with movement of cervix - Palpable adnexal mass - Signs of leaking or ruptured ectopic pregnancy: hypotension, marked abdominal tenderness with guarding and rebound tenderness • Labs: Quantitative serum hC
-Unruptured ectopic pregnancy with an adnexal mass <35 mm with no visible heartbeat-Serum hCG concentration <1500 IU/L-No intrauterine pregnancy (confirmed on an ultrasound scan). Offer surgery if treatment with methotrexate is not acceptable to the woman INTRODUCTION — An ectopic pregnancy is an extrauterine pregnancy. The majority occur in the fallopian tube (96 percent), but other possible sites include cervical, interstitial (also referred to as cornual), hysterotomy (cesarean) scar, intramural, ovarian, or abdominal .In rare cases, a multiple gestation may be heterotopic (include both an intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy)
Pelvic Ultrasound. An early pregnancy ultrasound is the most common determinant of an ectopic pregnancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This is also another way to detect the presence of ectopic pregnancy and it is safer than undergoing a CT scan for pregnant women.; Medical Intervention Purpose To compare the efficacy and safety of transvaginal ultrasoundguided interventional therapy with Methotrexate conservative treatment for unruptured ectopic pregnancy .Materials and Methods Select the unruptured ectopic pregnancy cases and randomly devided them into 2 groups: Ingroup A(n=48), injecting methotrexate into tubal pregnancy guided by transvaginal ultrasonography ; in group B.
Ectopic pregnancies occur at 1-2% of all pregnancies. The most common implantation site is the fallopian tube with 95, and 5% are non-tubal located. The aim of this review is to determine the current state of data about the diagnosis and the treatment of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies. Literature is reviewed concerning cervical, interstitial, cornual, ovarian, Caesarean scar, and abdominal. An ectopic pregnancy can be definitively diagnosed via ultrasound when a gestational sac with a yolk sac, or embryo, or both, is noted in the adnexa. ACOG practice bulletin no. 193: tubal ectopic pregnancy Another recent innovation is laparoscopic management of unruptured ectopic pregnancy, which results in lower morbidity, shorter hospitalization, and lower cost to the patient (21). The laparoscope is used either for removing a segment of affected fallopian tube or for opening up the tube and removing the products of conception (12,22) The primary role of ultrasound evaluation in the management of ectopic pregnancy consists in its diagnostic potential. Also, US plays a significant role in two clinical settings: when deciding the patient's eligibility for MTX therapy (i.e. in predicting its effectiveness), and following MTX administration, when monitoring the outcome A urine pregnancy test—including a home pregnancy test—can accurately diagnose a pregnancy but cannot detect whether it is an ectopic pregnancy. If a urine pregnancy test confirms pregnancy and an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, further blood testing or ultrasound is needed to diagnose an ectopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Use of transvaginal ultrasonography and quantitative measurement of the β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) has led to a reduction in the need for diagnostic laparoscopy. Furthermore, with earlier diagnosis, medical therapy with methotrexate can be offered and surgery avoided in some women, though the. Ectopic pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in reproductive-aged women, accounting for 9% of pregnancy-related deaths in the first trimester. 1,2 The number of ectopic pregnancies in the United States has increased from 17,800 in 1970 to 108,000 in 1992, a sixfold rise. 3 Despite increasing incidence, the mortality rate associated with ectopic pregnancy has fallen. A Case of Heterotopic Intrauterine Complete Molar Pregnancy and Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy. Case: We describe clinical case of a woman who presented with a very rare diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy with a coincident finding of intrauterine complete molar pregnancy and a tubal unruptured ectopic pregnancy. She was asymptomatic at the first. An ectopic pregnancy may be present despite a negative pelvic ultrasound A negative urinary pregnancy test virtually excludes an ectopic, or any other pregnancy Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions
The of unruptured ectopic pregnancy by laparo- total cost in the USA was estimated to be $1.1 billion scopy or injection of methotrexate. We quanti- for the year 1990.5 The unit cost was $9482 per fied the total costs associated with each case, mostly because of hospitalization and surgery procedure on the basis of a literature review Outpatient management of ectopic pregnancy -- which was first reported in 1987 (6 ) -- is believed to have increased in association with the early detection of unruptured ectopic pregnancies as the result of sensitive radioimmunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin and high-resolution transvaginal ultrasound (7,8) An unruptured ectopic pregnancy with an adnexal mass smaller than 35 mm with no visible heartbeat. Serum hCG level less than 1500 IU/L. No intrauterine pregnancy (as confirmed on an ultrasound scan). Surgery, by means of salpingectomy or salpingotomy, is performed laparoscopically or by open surgery. It is offered first line to women who are. An ectopic pregnancy occurs in roughly one in 100 pregnancies. It is important to know that an ectopic pregnancy is not able to develop into a healthy pregnancy or baby, and the mother must be treated to avoid risks and complications, such as rupture, that can be life-threatening
Patients and methods: that medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy with system- The selection criteria were patients who had a stable ic single-dose methotrexate seems to be an option for hemodynamic status and an ectopic gestational mass of some patients with unruptured tubal pregnancy. <4 cm. on ultrasound Surgical management. Surgery is preferred for ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Surgery is also indicated for patients with evidence of hemodynamic instability, anemia, pain for longer than 24 hours, β-hCG levels greater than 5000 mIU/mL, or with a gestational sac that measures more than 3.5 to 4 cm on ultrasound. 1,4,5 Laparoscopic techniques minimize the trauma and morbidity of salpingectomy or.
Ectopic Pregnancy. In ectopic pregnancy, implantation occurs in a site other than the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity—ie, in the fallopian tube, uterine cornua, cervix, ovary, or abdominal or pelvic cavity. Ectopic pregnancies cannot be carried to term and eventually rupture or involute. Early symptoms and signs include pelvic pain. Here a case of unruptured ectopic pregnancy in non-communicating rudimentary horn of unicornuate uterus at 15 weeks of gestation is presented. This patient presented in emergency department as a. The estimated prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is 1-2% worldwide. In the United Kingdom nearly 12 000 ectopic pregnancies are diagnosed each year, which gives a prevalence of 1.1%.1 Although death after ectopic pregnancy is rare, the burden of disease is high owing to the cost of diagnostic tests and expensive treatment.2 Serious adverse outcomes in ectopic pregnancies are typically caused by.
an unruptured ectopic pregnancy with no visible heartbeat ; a serum chg. level less than 1500 IU/litre ; no intrauterine pregnancy (as confirmed on an ultrasound scan) Surgical intervention may be an emergency or a preferred option for the woman who does not want to use methotrexate. It is normally performed by keyhole surgery An ectopic pregnancy can be definitively diagnosed via ultrasound when a gestational sac with a yolk sac, or embryo, or both, is noted in the adnexa. Not all ectopic pregnancies can be visualized on ultrasound; however, with increasingly high-resolution ultrasound and expert sonography, studies have shown that TVUS is both highly sensitive and. unruptured intramural ectopic pregnancy, conservative or expectant management could be offered to preserve the patient's fertility. CONCLUSION Intramural pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and is a life-threatening condition. Early detection of intramural pregnancy is needed to preven Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy outside of the uterine cavity. In about 4% of ectopic pregnancy, it can involve the cornua .Cornual pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy in which the embryo implants in the junction between the fallopian tube and the uterus .Diagnosis is challenging because on ultrasound, the pregnancy often appears to be intrauterine Definitions. Ectopic Pregnancy. Implantation of fertilized ovum outside of the Uterus. Pregnancy of Unknown Location. Positive Pregnancy Test but no intrauterine pregnancy or ectopic visible on Transvaginal Ultrasound. Epidemiology. Incidence: 1-2% of all pregnancies. Second most common cause of maternal mortality Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage have an adverse effect on the quality of life of many women. Approximately 20% of pregnancies miscarry, and miscarriages can cause considerable distress. Early pregnancy loss accounts for over 50,000 admissions in the UK annually