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Epinephrine indications

Epinephrine Price - Find Local Pharmacy Price

Higher doses of epinephrine are not recommended except when indicated for exceptional circumstances (e.g., beta-blocker overdosage). Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents† 0.01 mg/kg/dose (0.1 mL/kg/dose of a 0.1 mg/mL solution) IV or IO; may repeat every 3 to 5 minutes. Max: 1 mg/dose (10 mL/dose of a 0.1 mg/mL solution) Indications for the use of epinephrine. (a) Relieve bronchospasm. Epinephrine is used to relieve. bronchiospasm as is seen with patients who have asthma. It opens the breathing. pathways and allows for easier breathing. (b) Prolong the action of local anesthetics. Epinephrine is sometimes. combined with a local anesthetic (that is, lidocaine) Indications and Usage. Epinephrine Injection, USP is indicated for intravenous injection in (1) treatment of acute hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens), (2) treatment of acute asthmatic attacks to relieve bronchospasm not controlled by inhalation or subcutaneous administration of other solutions of the drug and (3) treatment and prophylaxis of.

Tell all of your health care providers that you take EPINEPHrine (nasal). This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists. If you are 65 or older, use EPINEPHrine (nasal) with care. You could have more side effects. Talk with the doctor before you give EPINEPHrine (nasal) to a child younger than 6 years old Indications and Usage for Epinephrine Injection Hypotension associated with Septic Shock Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/10 mL (0.1 mg/mL) is indicated to increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock. Epinephrine Injection Dosage and Administratio Common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine include anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and respiratory difficulties Epinephrine is the medication of choice for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis. Through vasoconstrictor effects, it prevents or decreases upper airway mucosal edema (laryngeal edema), hypotension, and shock. In addition, it has important bronchodilator effects and cardiac inotropic and chronotropic effects. 1-4,19-2 Epinephrine inhalation is used to treat mild symptoms of asthma, including wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. epinephrine inhalation is for occasional use and is not a maintenance treatment for asthma. Epinephrine inhalation may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide

Epinephrine (medication) - Wikipedia

Epinephrine injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) to insect stings or bites, foods, drugs, and other allergens. Epinephrine auto-injectors may be kept on hand for self-injection by a person with a history of severe allergic reaction The commonly used epinephrine autoinjector delivers a 0.3 mg epinephrine injection (0.3 mL, 1:1000) and is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions including anaphylaxis to stings, contrast agents, medicines or people with a history of anaphylactic reactions to known triggers This medication is a hormone, recommended for cardiac arrest (to restart the heart beat), dilation of blood vessels, increase of diastolic blood pressure, increasing the flow of blood to heart and.. Epinephrine is the primary drug used in the cardiac arrest algorithm. It is used for its potent vasoconstrictive effects and also for its ability to increase cardiac output.Epinephrine is considered a vasopressor. Indications for ACL Epinephrine must be diluted prior to intraocular use. Dilute 1 mL of epinephrine 1 mg/mL (1:1000) in 100 to 1000 mL of an ophthalmic irrigation fluid to create an epinephrine concentration of 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 (10-1 mcg/mL) Use the irrigating solution as needed for the surgical procedure

Adrenalin (epinephrine) dose, indications, adverse effects

  1. This medication is used in emergencies to treat very serious allergic reactions to insect stings /bites, foods, drugs, or other substances. Epinephrine acts quickly to improve breathing, stimulate..
  2. Epinephrine is a non-selective alpha and beta adrenergic agonist indicated: To increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock. (1.1) For..
  3. Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants), and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitoes), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media), and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis

EpiPen and EpiPen Jr are indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which include bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants) and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitoes), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media) and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis Off-label uses of epinephrine include, but are not limited to, ventricular fibrillation, pulseless ventricular tachycardia, asystole, pulseless electrical activity (PEA), croup, and severe asthma exacerbations unresponsive to standard treatment. In the operating room (OR) setting, epinephrine is also used as a local anesthetic block For other uses, see Adrenaline (disambiguation). Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions (e.g., respiration). Adrenaline is normally produced both by the adrenal glands and by a small number of neurons in the medulla oblongata Epinephrine is used to treat wheezing and shortness of breath that commonly occur with asthma.Controlling these symptoms can decrease time lost from work or school. Epinephrine is a bronchodilator.

Adults and children weighing 30 kilograms (kg) or more—0.3 to 0.5 milligram (mg) injected under the skin or into the muscle of your thigh. You may repeat the injection every 5 to 10 minutes as needed. Children weighing less than 30 kg—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor Epinephrine Injection, USP is indicated for intravenous injection in (1) treatment of acute hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid reactions to drugs, animal serums and other allergens), (2) treatment of..

Epinephrine is a naturally occurring hormone, which is released from the adrenal medulla and is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and smooth muscle constriction (1). Epinephrine naturally occurs at the ends of sympathetic nerve fibers where they serve as chemical mediators for carrying nerve impulses (2) If epinephrine delivery is administered via endotracheal tube, 2 to 2.5 mg of epinephrine should be diluted in 10 mL normal saline before administering Higher dose epinephrine (up to .2 mg/kg) may be used for specific indications like beta blocker or calcium channel blocker overdos

Indications for the use of epinephrine

Pharmacodynamics. Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic drug. It causes an adrenergic receptive mechanism on effector cells and mimics all actions of the sympathetic nervous system except those on the facial arteries and sweat glands 17.. Important effects of epinephrine include increased heart rate, myocardial contractility, and renin release via beta-1 receptors Epinephrine injection is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, latex, and other causes. Epinephrine is in a class of medications called alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists (sympathomimetic agents) Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic, which stimulates both Alpha and Beta-receptors. As a result of the its effects, myocardial and cerebral blood flow are increased during ventilation and chest compression. Epinephrine increases systemic vascular resistance and thus may enhance defibrillation. INDICATIONS Épinéphrine : mode d'administration et indications. L'épinéphrine ou adrénaline est un médicament administré par différentes voies, selon la situation clinique du patient. Elle est notamment indiquée pour le traitement de l'arrêt cardiaque et les chocs anaphylactiques. L'épinéphrine, plus connue sous le nom d'adrénaline, est. Epinephrine may widen pulse pressure. If disturbances in cardiac rhythm occur, withhold epinephrine and notify physician immediately. Keep physician informed of any changes in intake-output ratio. Use cardiac monitor with patients receiving epinephrine IV. Have full crash cart immediately available

Epinephrine Indications. Bronchospasm, allergic and anaphylactic reactions, restoration of cardiac activity in cardiac arrest. Sodium Bicarbonate Indications. Acidosis, drug intoxications (e.g, barbiturates, salicylates, methyl alcohol) Sodium Bicarbonate Adverse Effects racemic epinephrine & heliox. Nebulized racemic epinephrine can temporize while preparing for intubation. Heliox may also be considered as a stop-gap measure to stabilize the patient sufficiently to organize the material and people required for intubation. indications for intubation. Precise indications are unclear Epinephrine indications. Common Questions and Answers about Epinephrine indications. epipen. I had to get stitches last night, and was given 5-6 shots of epinephrine and lidocane. I told the intake nurse I was taking synthroid (which I presume implies thyroid problems). I felt a little unusual afterward (pounding heart, feeling calm and. Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.3 mg, 0.15 mg, for intramuscular or subcutaneous use Initial U.S. Approval: 1939 _____ INDICATIONS AND USAG E _____ Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector contains epinephrine, a non -selective alpha and beta -adrenergic receptor agonist, indicated in the emergenc EPIPEN Jr® (epinephrine injection, USP) Auto-Injector 0.15 mg, for intramuscular or subcutaneous use Initial U.S. Approval: 1939 RECENT MAJOR CHANGES • Dosage and Administration (2) 05/2016 • Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3) 05/2016 INDICATIONS AND USAGE EpiPen ® and EpiPen Jr contain epinephrine, a non-selectiv

Epinephrine 1:10,000 0

Adrenaline (Epinephrine) : Therapeutic uses, Dosage & Side EffectsAdrenaline or Epinephrine or adrenalin or β,3,4-trihydroxy-N-methylphenethylamine (cathecholamine) is a adrenergic agonist (direct acting), used as cardiac stimulants & in treating severe allergic reactions (eg, difficulty breathing; rash; hives; itching; tightness in the chest; severe dizziness; swelling of the mouth, lips, or. INDICATIONS AND USAGE. Epinephrine auto-injector is indicated in the emergency treatment of severe allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g. order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants), and biting insects (e.g. triatoma, mosquitos), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g. radiocontrast.

EPINEPHrine (Nasal): Indications, Side Effects, Warnings

Indications and Usage The epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects and biting insects, allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances, and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced. Indications Pharmacokinetics Side/adverse effects How supplied/Dosages Contraindications Special considerations Approved protocol 13. Recognize that Epinephrine 1:1,000 for anaphylaxis, administered by an Epinephrine auto injector may be available on an ambulance or first response vehicle and the EMT-Basic actin IM epinephrine is doubtless the best approach for patient self-treatment, for first responders, and for immediate treatment in the emergency department. However, intravenous epinephrine has some advantages for patients within a hospital who already have IV access (e.g. peri-operative anaphylaxis or drug-induced anaphylaxis within an ICU) EpiPen®; EpiPen®Jr. Indications. Patient exhibits signs and symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) including respiratory distress and/or shock. Medication is prescribed to the patient. Medical direction gives E.M.T authorization. Contraindications. None in a life-threatening situation

Epinephrine Injection - FDA prescribing information, side

  1. utes x 3 then contact medical control. Cardiac Arrest: 0.01 mg (0.1 ml)/kg IV or IO of 1:10,000 repeat q 3-5
  2. ds in PT
  3. THE MANY USES OF EPINEPHRINE. Epinephrine, also known as adrenalin or adrenaline, is a hormone, neurotransmitter and medication. It is generally produced by both the adrenal glands and certain neurons. It plays an important role in the fight-or-fight response by growing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation and blood sugar
Neonatal Resuscitation Pp

Adrenalin (Epinephrine): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects

Unknown if inhaled epinephrine is distributed in human milk. Pregnant or breastfeeding patients should seek advice of health professional before using OTC drugs. Pregnancy Categories. A: Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk. B: May be acceptable Epinephrine racemic is used for temporary relief of symptoms associated with bronchial asthma (e.g., shortness of breath, chest tightening, wheezing) and to treat croup in children. Epinephrine racemic is available under the following different brand names: AsthmaNefrin and S2. Dosages of Epinephrine Racemic Patients and caregivers must be carefully instructed on the technique for use of, and indications for, self-injectable epinephrine, how to recognize the symptoms of anaphylaxis, and the need to activate emergency services (call 911 or equivalent) in the event of anaphylaxis. Instructions on allergen avoidance are key

Epinephrine for First-aid Management of Anaphylaxis

Epinephrine inhalation Uses, Side Effects & Warnings

Epinephrine may not work as well and may cause gas gangrene. Check with your doctor or go to the hospital emergency room right away to get additional treatment. Do not inject this medicine into your hands or feet. There is already less blood flow to the hands and feet, and epinephrine could make that worse and cause damage to these tissues EpiPen Jr and EpiPen are not usually recommended for children less than 10kg EpiPen Jr recommended for children between 10 and 20kg EpiPen recommended for adults and children over 20kg * Refer to definitions on page 2 ** These are based on expert opinion which is at variance with the approved product information. Epinephrine can also be used as a vasopressor agent for patients who are not in cardiac arrest but who have other indications for a vasopressor. For example, epinephrine is considered Class IIb for symptomatic bradycardia (Class IIb: acceptable but not recommended; weak supporting evidence) after atropine and transcutaneous pacing fail

epinephrine [ep″ĭ-nef´rin] a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla; called also adrenaline (British). Its function is to aid in the regulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. At times when a person is highly stimulated, as by fear, anger, or some challenging situation, extra amounts of epinephrine are released into the. Indications and Usage. Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection, by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these. EpiPen ® and EpiPen Jr ® (epinephrine injection, USP) Auto-Injectors are used for the emergency treatment of life-threatening allergic reactions. Each EpiPen 2-Pak ® and EpiPen Jr 2-Pak ® contains two single auto-injectors, instructions for use and a training device, with no drug product or needle, to help patients become familiar with the administration technique

Background: Following a period of mechanical ventilation, post-extubation upper airway obstruction can occur in newborn infants, especially after prolonged, traumatic or multiple intubations. The subsequent increase in upper airway resistance may lead to respiratory insufficiency and failure of extubation. The vasoconstrictive properties of epinephrine, and its proven efficacy in the treatment. Overview: Epinephrine is a vasopressor most often seen in the Adult Cardiac Arrest Algorithm, which is used to treat ventricular fibrillation (VF), pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), Asystole, and pulseless electrical activity(PEA).It can also be used to treat bradycardia, anaphylaxis, and severe hypotension. The primary purpose of this particular ACLS drug is to utilize its. Articaine HCl and Epinephrine contains articaine HCl (40 mg/mL), epinephrine (1:200,000 or 1:100,000) (as epinephrine bitartrate), sodium chloride (1.6 mg/mL), and sodium metabisulfite (0.5 mg/mL). The product is formulated with a 15% overage of epinephrine. The pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide. Close

ORABLOC® (articaine hydrochloride and epinephrine injection), for intraoral submucosal infiltration use, is a sterile, aqueous solution that contains articaine HCl 4% (40mg/mL) and epinephrine bitartrate in an epinephrine 1:200,000 or epinephrine 1:100,000 strength. Articaine HCl is an amino amide local anesthetic, chemically designated as 4. substitute for immediate medical care. In conjunction with the administration of epinephrine, the patient should seek immediate medical or hospital care. More than two sequential doses of epinephrine should only be administered under direct medical supervision [see Indications and Usage (1), Dosage and Administration (2) an

This may result in the fact that epinephrine is more potent drug than norepinephrine. At least, it is used more widely and has more indications including PCR and acute anaphylaxis, in contrast to norepinephrine. I wonder if there are any indications of norepinephrine where you cannot use epinephrine. Probably, one such a property is acute. Adrenaline for administration by intramuscular injection is available in 'auto-injectors' (e.g. Emerade ® —product recalled, see Important Safety Information, EpiPen ®, or Jext ®), pre-assembled syringes fitted with a needle suitable for very rapid administration (if necessary by a bystander or a healthcare provider if it is the only. INDICATIONS & USAGE. Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Injections are indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures. Epinephrine has an intravascular half-life of 1.7 minutes. 14 The second adverse event, vasovagal fainting, can occur following any injection or procedure. Injecting patients while they are supine reduces the risk of injury from fainting. In addition to the aforementioned indications,. Racemic epinephrine is a useful agent in patients with established postextubation stridor; however, its efficacy for prevention of postextubation stridor has not been proven. 177 Racemic epinephrine may also be considered as an adjunct to therapy for pulmonary hemorrhage. 178 When using racemic epinephrine, one should be aware of the side.

Epinephrine injection Uses, Side Effects & Warnings

Epinephrine (medication) - Wikipedi

Epinephrine (Adrenaline) : Therapeutic uses, Dosage & Side Effects. Epinephrine or adrenaline or adrenalin or β,3,4-trihydroxy-N-methylphenethylamine (cathecholamine) is a adrenergic agonist (direct acting), used as cardiac stimulants & in treating severe allergic reactions (eg, difficulty breathing; rash; hives; itching; tightness in the chest; severe dizziness; swelling of the mouth, lips. Epinephrine is a commonly used medication in the emergency department for the management of anaphylaxis and cardiac arrest. Administering this drug can be confusing as the dosage and concentration are different for each indication. The allergy epi 1:1000 concentration is 10 times more concentrated than the cardiac epi. The allergy epi is delivered IM while the cardiac epi. -----INDICATIONS AND USAGE -----­ MARCAINE contains bupivacaine, an amide local anesthetic, and MARCAINE WITH EPINEPHRINE is a combination of bupivacaine, an amide local anesthetic, and epinephrine, an alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist. MARCAINE

Epinephrine dose in mg vs volume to be given Epinephrine 1:10,000 means 1g : 10,000ml. That is the same as 1000 mg: 10,000ml. Which is the same as 1mg:10ml. That means in an ACLS code situation if you want to give 1mg of epinephrine, you would actually draw 10ml of epinephrine (1:10,000). If you instead [ Epinephrine-Indications •Cardiac Arrest •Refractory bradycardia •Life threatening bronchoconstriction •Anaphylaxis/Allergic reactions. Epinephrine-Contraindications. None with the indicated conditions. Epinephrine-Side effects Adrenaline is a non-selective agonist of all adrenergic receptors. It activates α1, α2, β1, and β2 receptors to different extents by increasing vascular resistance, BP, HR, coronary and cerebral blood flow, myocardial contraction, myocardial oxygen demand, and automaticity. Epinephrine Indications. Anaphlaxis IM epinephrine administered in the lateral thigh using an autoinjector has the fastest increase in serum epinephrine compare to SQ administration. So, IM epinephrine into the lateral thigh is the preferred route of administration. become familiar with the indications and adverse effects of glucagon therapy. Hypoglycemia treatment is the. Epinephrine, hormone secreted mainly by the medulla of the adrenal glands that functions primarily to increase cardiac output and raise blood glucose levels. Epinephrine is released during acute stress and is associated with the fight-or-flight response. Learn more about epinephrine's production and effects

4. Prepare to administer the epinephrine auto-injector 4. The epinephrine auto-injector acts immediately, so do not Under 66 lbs, use 0.15 mg Over 66 lbs, use 0.3 mg delay in administering it. Make sure 911 has been called. 5. Epinephrine auto-injector Administration Procedure: 5. The epinephrine auto-injector can be injected through the a Epinephrine acts quickly to improve breathing, stimulate the heart, raise a dropping blood pressure, reverse hives, and reduce swelling of the face, lips, and throat. How to use Epinephrine.

Epinephrine Drug Information - Indications, Dosage, Side

Noradrenaline

How norepinephrine, dopamine and epinephrine work. Norepinephrine increases blood pressure by vasoconstriction (alpha effects) and has very little effect on beta until it reaches the higher doses. Epinephrine is the only first-line treatment for anaphylaxis. According to the food allergy guidelines developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, if experiencing anaphylaxis, a person should receive an intramuscular injection of epinephrine and seek immediate emergency medical care The small amounts of epinephrine (combined with local anesthetics) that may be used in routine dental procedures are unlikely to be a problem. The same applies to minor dermatologic procedures that involve injection of small amounts of local anesthetics and epinephrine. Nonetheless, some patients undergoing facial or eyelid surgery with. SYMJEPI® (epinephrine) Injection THE DEVICE FOR ALLERGIC. EMERGENCIES THAT FITS YOUR LIFE. SYMJEPI keeps the confidence to handle allergic emergencies close at hand, wherever you are. SYMJEPI contains the same medicine as in the most widely used epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs), and it is packaged in a compact, easy-to-carry, and ready-to-use. Epinephrine should be used immediately if you experience severe symptoms such as shortness of breath, repetitive coughing, weak pulse, generalized hives, tightness in the throat, trouble breathing/swallowing, or a combination of symptoms from different body areas such as hives, rashes, or swelling on the skin coupled with vomiting, diarrhea, or.

It is used during ACLS and PALS because it has a wide range of indications. These include the treatment of cardiac arrest, arrhythmias, and extreme allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. Epinephrine is a catecholamine having a non-specific action on the adrenoceptors causing an increase in activation of the sympathetic nervous system epinephrine (n=8 studies), β2-agonist bronchodilators (n=13), corticosteroids (n=13), and ribavirin (n=10). The eight epinephrine studies (n=660 patients) were all included in the Cochrane review described in the bullet above. Four studied racemic and four studied L-epinephrine and the results were not assessed by the form of the drug

For patients in cardiac arrest, administering epinephrine helps to restart the heart but may increase the overall likelihood of death or debilitating brain damage, according to a study published Dec. 1 the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. The study, led by Florence Dumas, MD, PhD, of the Parisian Cardiovascular Research Center in France, sought to offer new data in an ongoing. Epinephrine. Indications: Anaphylactic shock, septic shock, cardiogenic shock, neurogenic shock, symptomatic bradycardia, cardiac arrest, bronchospasm. Dose: 0.01-0.1 mcg/kg/min. Adverse Effects: arrhythmias, cardiac ischemia. Epinephrine is the first line vasopressor for cardiac arrest and anaphylaxis. Epinephrine acts mostly on beta-1. The code or cardiac epinephrine stored on ALS ambulances is in a 0.1 mg/mL concentration. To make push dose epinephrine, it needs to be diluted to a 0.01 mg/mL (10mcg/mL) concentration.

Septocaine® and epinephrine 1:100,000 - PAIN MANAGEMENTThe Vasopressor Toolbox for Defending Blood Pressure | SCCMContents of the dental carpule - Pharmacology of localPPT - ACLS Medications PowerPoint Presentation, freeCalcium chloride - patient information, descriptionAwake Intubation and Fiberoptic Intubation - Crashing Patient

Medical students and beginning residents usually get mixed up when it comes to epinephrine dosing. Plus, truth be told, if you're giving epi, you are alread.. 11.25mg/.5mL (2.25% as 1.125% dextro-epinephrine and 1.125% levo-epinephrine) Bronchial Asthma. Indicated for temporary relieve of symptoms associated with bronchial asthma (eg, shortness of breath, chest tightening, wheezing) S2: 0.5 mL of 2.25% solution diluted in 3 mL NS via jet nebulizer q3-4hr PRN Indications for MARCAINE WITH EPINEPHRINE: Production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, dental and oral surgery procedures, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for.